Intraluminal containment of commensal outgrowth in the gut during infection induced dysbiosis.

Molloy MJ*, Grainger JR*, Bouladoux N*, Hand TW, Naik S, Quimones M, Dzutsev AK, Gao JL, Trinchieri G, Murphy PM and Belkaid Y. Intraluminal containment of commensal outgrowth in the gut during infection induced dysbiosis. Cell Host Microbe. 14(3):318-28. Sept, 2013

Shifts in commensal microbiota composition are emerging as a hallmark of gastrointestinal inflammation. In particular, outgrowth of γ-proteobacteria has been linked to the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease and the pathologic consequences of infections. Here we show that following acute Toxoplasma gondiigastrointestinal infection of mice, control of commensal outgrowth is a highly coordinated process involving both the host response and microbial signals.

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Compartmentalized and systemic control of tissue immunity by commensals.

Belkaid Y and Naik S. Compartmentalized and systemic control of tissue immunity by commensals. Nature Immunology. 14(7):646-53 June, 2013

In this Perspective, we discuss how resident commensals outside the gastrointestinal tract can control unique physiological niches and the potential implications of the dialog between these commensals and the host for the establishment of immune homeostasis, protective responses and tissue pathology.

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Signaling via the IL-20 receptor inhibits cutaneous production of IL-1β and IL-17A to promote infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Myles IA, Fontecilla N , Valdez PA, Vithayathil P, Naik S, Belkaid Y, Ouyang W and Datta SK. Signaling via the IL-20 receptor inhibits cutaneous production of IL-1b and IL-17A to promote infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Nature Immunology. 14(8):804-11 June, 2013

Staphylococcus aureus causes most infections of human skin and soft tissue and is a major infectious cause of mortality. Host defense mechanisms against S. aureus are incompletely understood. Interleukin 19 (IL-19), IL-20 and IL-24 signal through type I and type II IL-20 receptors and are associated with inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis.  Our findings identify an immunosuppressive role for IL-19, IL-20 and IL-24 during infection that could be therapeutically targeted to alter susceptibility to infection.

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Specific gut commensal flora locally alters T cell tuning to endogenous ligands.

Pascal C, Bouladoux N, Naik S and Schwartz R. Specific gut commensal flora locally alters T cell tuning to endogenous ligands. Immunity. 38(6):1198-210 June, 2013

These findings define a key role for the gut commensal flora in sustaining ongoing autoimmune responses through the local fine tuning of T-cell-receptor-proximal activation events in autoreactive T cells.

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Microbiota and T lymphocytes: the best enemies.

Bouladoux N, Hand TW*, Naik S*, Belkaid Y. Microbiota and T lymphocytes: the best enemies. Med Sci (Paris). 29(4):349-52Apr, 2013

(Article in French) The cells of our body coexist permanently with an extremely dense and varied microbial flora. This microbiota colonizes the surface of our skin and most of our mucous membranes, especially the intestinal mucosa.

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